Trauma impels people both to withdraw from close relationships and to seek them desperately. The profound disruption in basic trust, the common feelings of shame, guilt, and inferiority, and the need to avoid reminders of the trauma that might be found in social life, all foster withdrawal from close relationships. But the terror of the traumatic event intensifies the need for protective attachments. The traumatized person therefore frequently alternates between isolation and anxious clinging to others. […] It results in the formation of intense, unstable relationships that fluctuate between extremes.
A small minority of exceptional people appear to be relatively invulnerable in extreme situations. […] Stress-resistant individuals appear to be those with high sociability, a thoughtful and active coping style, and a strong perception of their ability to control their destiny.
[The patient] must find the courage to direct his attention to the phenomena of his illness. His illness must no longer seem to him contemptible, but must become an enemy worthy of his mettle, a piece of his personality, which has solid ground for its existence, and out of which things of value for his future life have to be derived. The way is thus paved […] for a reconciliation with the repressed material which is coming to expression in his symptoms, while at the same time place is found for a certain tolerance for the state of being ill.
The Price of Public Violence
It is not the number of arguments that partners have, nor the method of dealing with angry feelings, nor even whether they successfully resolve disagreements, that make a difference in defining success or failure in a relationship. The important defining factor is the ability to sustain emotional engagement and to reconnect to each other following arguments.
Is PTSD Contagious?
The psychological toll of the huge numbers of shootings that have occurred in Chicago over the past fifteen years, four-fifths of which took place in public settings.
A fascinating and truly heart-wrenching article on the effects of PTSD on families, and the idea of secondary PTSD.